“While psychological trauma is characterized by disruptions in a person’s sense of control, addiction can also be viewed as a disorder of control, or more accurately, an inability to control. The loss of control is insidious, often unrecognized by the addict until, in Alcoholics Anonymous terms, life becomes unmanageable.”
~Psychological Trauma and Addiction Treatment, edited by Dr. Bruce Carruth, PhD, LCSW
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a lasting, unhealthy reaction to any emotionally or physically painful event. PTSD is characterized by disruptive psychological symptoms that interfere with everyday life.
- Reliving the event through flashbacks, nightmares, or hallucinations
- Avoiding any memories, places, people, or things that remind them of the trauma
- Excessive arousal, evidenced by irritability, restlessness, anger, hatred, hyper-alertness, insomnia, or an inability to concentrate
- Persistent negative emotions, such as guilt or shame
What Causes PTSD?
PTSD results from unprocessed emotions following trauma that threatened the person’s safety or life—or even just had the POTENTIAL to, such as:
- Physical or sexual assault or abuse
- Serious accidents
- Automobile wrecks
- Witnessing a death, especially that of a family member or friend
- Major illness or injury —either to one’s self or to a loved one
- Combat or warfare—Among veterans, PTSD was formerly called shell shock, battle fatigue, or combat neurosis.
- Natural disasters
Prevalence of PTSD
To start with, trauma is more common than you might think. 60% of men and 50% of women will experience at least one traumatic event during their lifetime. But there are differences:
- Men tend to suffer trauma due to physical assault, accidents, combat, or natural disaster. They are also more likely than women to witness serious injury or death.
- Women, on the other hand, are more often victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, or childhood sexual abuse.
Every year, between 3% and 4% of American adults experience symptoms of PTSD. According to the Veterans Administration, approximately 8 million adults have PTSD in a given year. About 9% of the population develops the disorder at some point during their lifetime.
Certain occupations put workers at greater risk of experiencing or witnessing disasters or violence:
- Military—Among veterans, the lifetime prevalence of PTSD is 31% for males and 27% for females. It is even higher for those who served in a combat zone.
- Police officers
- Healthcare professionals
- Train drivers
- Bank employees
- Post office personnel
- Store workers
Trauma, PTSD, and Substance Abuse
Trauma and substance abuse frequently cooccur, because PTSD sufferers will try to “self-medicate” to numb emotional pain:
- Victims of physical or sexual abuse or assault are three times as likely to abuse alcohol or drugs.
- Over 70% of rehab clients have personal histories that includes trauma.
- Almost 60% of individuals diagnosed with PTSD will eventually develop Substance Use Disorder.
- Of special relevance, two-thirds of traumatic experiences are preceded by substance use.
The Effect of Childhood Trauma
A 2012 study concluded that trauma during childhood strongly influences the likelihood of developing depression or SUD as an adult. Adverse Childhood Events alter the regions of the brain associated with impulse control and emotional regulation.
The National Child Traumatic Stress Network estimates that 1 out of every 4 American children experiences at least one ACE. Significantly, research shows that for each ACE witnessed or experience, the risk of initiating alcohol or drug use jumps by up to 400%. This means a child with 5 or more ACEs is up to 2000% more likely to abuse substances than a child who has experienced zero.
Substance abuse also seems to increase an adolescent’s vulnerability to PTSD. Teenagers who use drugs or alcohol are twice as likely to develop PTSD following a traumatic event, compared to their peers who abstain.
How Substance Abuse Leads to Trauma
Drug use and excessive drinking often leads to other risky behaviors which in turn result in new trauma, such as:
- Binge drinking
- Drunken-driving—28% of all traffic-related deaths in the US involve alcohol. Drugs other than alcohol are involved in 16% of all crashes.
- Sexual assault – Nearly 75% of perpetrators and more than 50% of the victims admit to drinking prior the incident.
- Violence—Half of all assaults and homicides are committed when the victim, the offender, or both have been drinking.
- Domestic violence—Among female victims of domestic abuse, 33% report problem with drugs and alcohol, compared to just 16% of non-victims. In up to 65% of cases, batterers drank beforehand.
- Self-harm – People with SUD are 6 times more likely to attempt suicide.
- Child abuse—40% of offenders where drinking at the time of the crime.
This creates a self-perpetuating cycle of trauma, substance abuse, and new trauma.
Getting Help for PTSD and Addiction
There are special challenges to treating a dual diagnosis of PTSD and SUD. Individualized evidence-based strategies that address both the addiction and the trauma simultaneously are the best way to support successful recovery:
- Individual psychological counseling
- Behavioral modification
- Group therapy
- Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT)
- Grief/Trauma processing
- Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
If you live in the San Diego area and you are locked into a vicious cycle of substance abuse and recurring trauma, Lasting Recovery can help. As one of the leading drug and alcohol rehab programs in San Diego, Lasting Recovery provides comprehensive and integrated substance abuse and mental health treatment that can help you overcome these co-occurring disorders.
If you are ready to get better, Contact Lasting Recovery TODAY.
Lasting Recovery – “Where Wellness Begins…”